Spotted-wing drosophila (SWD; Fig 1) has not yet been detected in Wisconsin but has been reported in other Eastern and Midwestern states, including Minnesota. Appearance. suzukii, originally from southeast Asia, is becoming a major pest species in America and Europe, because it infests fruit early during the ripening stage, in contrast with other Drosophila … Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2019 Regents of the University of California 0000016136 00000 n Remove and destroy infested fruit as you monitor. 0000016221 00000 n One to several larvae can be found feeding within a single fruit. After maturing, the larvae partially or completely exit the fruit to pupate. Acknowledgements Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an insect pest of economically valuable small fruit and tree fruit crops. It was discovered in western Washington, Oregon and British Columbia in 2009, and in eastern Washington in June of 2010. Spotted wing drosophila is a small vinegar fly from East Asia that lays its eggs in softer, thin-skinned fruits, such as berries. These are Atheta, a rove beetle, and nematodes that eat fly larvae, Steinernema feltiae. 0000045287 00000 n The SWD larvae will sometimes drop to the soil to pupate and be available to the predators or parasites on the soil surface. Two good guides for detecting SWD larvae in fruit samples are available online: Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Monitoring, Identifying, and Fruit Sampling by the small fruit team from Washington State University and Spotted Wing Drosophila Management Recommendations for Michigan Raspberry and Blackberry Growers by the MSU Extension small fruit team. 0000013516 00000 n EM 9021. SWD quickly spread throughout the Pacific Northwest and Canada, and was found in Florida in 2009. common name: spotted-wing drosophila scientific name: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) Introduction - Distribution - Description - Life Cycle - Hosts - Damage - Management - Selected References Introduction (Back to Top). 0000132862 00000 n Spotted Wing Drosophila. Damage can provide an entry site for infection by secondary fungal and bacterial pathogens, but this is not always the case. The Alachua Grower (online) Profaizer D, Angeli G, Trainotti D, Marchel L, Zadra E, Sofia M, Ioriatti C, 2012. 0000009191 00000 n All blueberry varieties appear to be susceptible. Spotted wing drosophila. 0000007566 00000 n Photo by John Davis. You don’t notice the larvae until later. Drill 10 to 16 holes that are 3/16-inch in diameter around the upper side of the container for fly entry. Sprays must be timed to kill adults before they lay eggs, as sprays will not control larvae already in the fruit. One generation, from egg to adult, may occur in … 0000041420 00000 n Adult male spotted wing drosophila. Small white larvae hatch from eggs within a few days and feed inside the fruit, causing it to soften and collapse around the feeding site. (PDF) Corvallis: Ore. State Univ. Larvae feed inside ripe or ripening fruit, causing softness and opening the skin with holes. Photo 3 – Spotted wing drosophila assessment technique using a salt water solution with raspberry. The spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly that is a 1/16 to 1/8 inch long with red eyes and a yellow-brown thorax and abdomen. EM 9096 • October 2014. 0000009708 00000 n It became established in Hawaii during the 1980’s, and was first discovered in the continental United States in California in 2008. Among the berries, raspberries appear to be the most susceptible; blackberries and strawberries also are susceptible in coastal climates under very moist conditions when fruit is not harvested frequently. Put fresh apple cider vinegar and a drop of soap in each week. Unlike other vinegar flies that occur in California, spotted wing drosophila attacks healthy ripening fruit as well as damaged or split fruit. A spotted wing drosophila are able to lay its eggs in healthy fruit that is still ripening, as opposed to other vinegar flies that only attack rotting fruit. Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) larvae in a grape. trailer <<8732022B7153434681584327494E1D3E>]/Prev 604858/XRefStm 2521>> startxref 0 %%EOF 463 0 obj <>stream Produced by UC Statewide IPM Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Berry growers should set out traps to monitor SWD populations in their fields. They can be easily distinguished from males of other Drosophila species or SWD females by a large dark spot on each wing, where their common name is derived from. If a small percentage of fruit is infested, you can salvage some of the crop by harvesting the crop immediately and sorting and removing fruit with stings on the surface. The spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) is a vinegar or fruit fly of East Asian origin. spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) This species is Introduced in the United States. Identifying Drosophila suzukii. 0000053321 00000 n Unlike most other vinegar flies it can damage otherwise unblemished soft and stone fruit including strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, blueberries, grapes, cherries and plums. Figure1a. Serv. 0000009601 00000 n … 0000004733 00000 n Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Larvae EM 9096 • October 2014 Figure1a. Produced by Dr. Peter Shearer and Preston Brown, OSU MCAREC Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a vinegar (fruit) fly that was first reported in Britain in 2012. Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Blueberry; photo by David Handley. The fly lays eggs in the ripening fruit. The larvae may pupate inside or outside the fruit. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an insect pest of economically valuable small fruit and tree fruit crops.Known in Oregon and the Pacific Northwest since about 2009, this species now appears to be established in many fruit growing regions around the country. Spotted wing drosophila: potential economic impact of a newly established pest. our common “fruit flies”). spotted wing drosophila larvae safe to eat December 2, 2020 / 0 Comments / in Uncategorized / by Spotted wing drosophila may be mistaken for other adult flies and maggots. Spotted wing drosophila and other Drosophila species do not appear to use pheromones as long range attractants, unlike some moths or beetles. Small white larvae hatch from eggs within a few days and feed inside the fruit, causing it to soften and collapse around the feeding site. Salem: Ore. Dept. The online version of this publication also includes a link to an SWD identification card. Some Drosophila species use a chemical called 11- cis -vaccenyl acetate (cVA) as a short-range attractant. Spotted wing drosophila, however, readily attacks undamaged fruit. A combination of preventive and cultural practices, discussed below in Cultural Control, might be useful for reducing problems on fruit trees and berries. All contents copyright © Vlach, J. Trapping, as discussed below in Monitoring for SWD, has not been shown to effectively reduce populations of SWD in backyard trees. The female will penetrate the skin of soft-skinned fruit with her large ovipositor and lay eggs just under the skin, creating a small puncture, or “sting,” on the fruit surface. Identification: Spotted Wing Drosophila in Ontario Table of Contents. You can gently squeeze the fruit to see if juice leaks from the small punctures; this can indicate presence of the pest. Spotted wing drosophila may be mistaken for other adult flies and maggots. 0000001716 00000 n 2010. Authors: J. L. Caprile, UC Cooperative Extension, Contra Costa Co.; M. L. Flint, UC Statewide IPM Program, Davis/Entomology, UC Davis; M. P. Bolda, UC Cooperative Extension, Santa Cruz Co.; J. If monitoring indicates a need to spray, the application should be made as soon as the fruit just begins to turn from yellow to pink. Small white larvae hatch from eggs within a few days and feed inside the fruit, causing it to soften and collapse around the feeding site. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly that's on the move. Larvae are tiny, white cylindrical maggots a little longer than 1/8 inch when full grown. Sprays at this time will not protect the crop, because maggots already are in the fruit. Spotted wing drosophila are significant pests of soft-skinned fruit crops because females are able to lay eggs in undamaged fruit, unlike other Drosophila flies. In its native Japan and in coastal California the adult flies can be captured throughout much of the year. SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA MANAGEMENT IN HOME FRUIT PLANTINGS Matthew J. Grieshop, Diane Brown, Rufus Isaacs, Julianna Wilson MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Entomology Last updated June 2020 Pest background. Grant, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin Co.; R. Van Steenwyk, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley; and D. R. Haviland, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern Co. Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) a new fruit pest of concern especially for strawberry, blackberry and blueberry growers. 2011. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a 0000009820 00000 n SWD stings are tiny, so a magnifying glass will help you see them. ... Eggs hatch after 1-3 days and the larvae (maggots) continue to feed in the fruit. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a vinegar (fruit) fly that was first reported in Britain in 2012. 0000131844 00000 n 0000015659 00000 n Pest Notes: Spotted Wing Drosophila 2010. 0000003678 00000 n At least 100 fruit per block per harvest should be observed for infestation. The females do not have spots on wings but have a very prominent, sawlike ovipositor for laying eggs in fruit. Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii), a serious fruit fly pest of soft fruit and berries, was first identified in British Columbia in 2009.It is now widespread … Accessed July 2011. Fruits like cherries will show visible dents around the larvae. The organophosphate insecticide malathion also will control spotted wing drosophila, but malathion is very toxic to bees and natural enemies of other pests in the garden so care must be taken to keep the application on the target plant and avoid drift and runoff. What makes the SWD different is that the female has an enlarged, serrated ovipositor (egg layer) that enables her to lay eggs under the skin of ripening fruits that are otherwise free of damage. 0000030385 00000 n Ext. 0000013215 00000 n Biology and management of spotted wing drosophila on small and stone fruits: year 1 reporting cycle. Spotted Wing Drosophila. 0000008583 00000 n The SWD adults and larvae are very similar in appearance to the common vinegar fly normally associated with over-ripe, decaying or damaged fruit. Left: Spotted wing drosophila in ablueberry. Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) larvae in a grape. Begin harvest as early as you can and continue to remove fruit as soon as they ripen. Spotted wing drosophila(SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a ... and the small white larvae feed, eventually causing fruit to collapse. Be sure to wait the interval specified on the pesticide label before harvesting fruit. PDF reader. 0000025586 00000 n The foreleg of the male sports dark bands on the first and second tarsi. In the United States, the fly was first reported to invade Hawaii in 1980 It infests ripening cherries throughout the state and ripening raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry crops, especially in coastal areas. The fly lays eggs in the ripening fruit. Recognize Fruit Damage from Spotted Wing Drosophila, Provisionary Guidelines: Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila in Home Garden Situations, © 2019 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Spotted wing drosophila pupating on the surface of a cherry. Dark-colored bands on the abdomen. Look closely by comparing anatomical features of the maggots and wing patterns of adult flies. 393 0 obj <> endobj xref 393 71 0000000016 00000 n 0000132166 00000 n We expect populations to increase in the coming weeks as more food (fruit) becomes available for the flies, especially if conditions remain warm and humid. 0000131303 00000 n Spotted wing drosophila larva on damaged cherry. Under conditions favorable to the SWD, the fruit begin to collapse as quickly as two days after the eggs were laid. Although there has been an immediate response from researchers and growers in California, Oregon, Washington and B.C. University of Maine Cooperative Extension shows how to identify the damage caused by Spotted Wing Drosophila. 0000013879 00000 n Check the trap weekly for small flies with dark spots at the tip of their wings floating in the fluid. This rapid developmental rate allows it to quickly develop large populations and inflict severe damage to a crop. Infested fruit can be placed in a durable plastic bag, sealed, and placed in the trash. Spotted wing drosophila is a small vinegar fly from East Asia that lays its eggs in softer, thin-skinned fruits, such as berries. Protecting Garden Fruits from Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. Egg deposition and larval feeding can occur in maturing, firm fruit; Small (2-3 mm in length) flies with yellow-brown colouring, dark bands on the abdomens and red eyes; Males have a dark spot on the tip of their forewings; Larvae feed internally on fruit, are cream coloured and about 3 mm long Genus species: Drosophila suzukii. 0000118418 00000 n 0000081382 00000 n Always read product labels to make sure pesticides are registered for use on the fruit or berry you are treating. These are Atheta, a rove beetle, and nematodes that eat fly larvae, Steinernema feltiae. Solarizing fruit under clear plastic in the sunshine has been quite successful in killing flies in fruit in preliminary studies performed in Oregon. Introduction; Adults; Eggs; Larvae; Pupae; Introduction. Today, it has spread throughout most of the continental US. After maturing, the larvae partially or completely exit the fruit to pupate. Fruits like cherries will show visible dents around the larvae. The infestation level can increase quite rapidly if fruit are left untreated or unharvested. Known in Oregon and the Pacific Northwest since about 2009, this species now appears to be established in many fruit growing regions around the country. If you find infected fruit you should either harvest all the fruit immediately or spray to prevent the damage from increasing before harvest. Larvae are tiny, white cylindrical maggots a little longer than 1/8 inch when full grown. Adult SWD are small, 1/16 to 1/8 in long (2‐3 mm) with red eyes and a light brown thorax and abdomen. We expect populations to increase in the coming weeks as more food (fruit) becomes available for the flies, especially if conditions remain warm and humid. It also has been observed occasionally attacking other soft-flesh fruit such as plums, plumcots, nectarines, and figs when conditions are right. A: Adult male flies are 2-3 mm long and may be seen on the outside of fruit. h�b```b`�x�����?�A��b�,G&�(�0�&��$`�.,�*9�����B u�R�Eߞ�q�D4�P�x}���ޛ���f�Α T����T��. 0000047936 00000 n Research studies to define the biology and life cycle of SWD in California are still underway; however, like other vinegar flies, it appears to have a short life cycle of one to several weeks depending on temperature and can have as many as 10 generations per year. Under conditions favorable to the SWD, the fruit begin to collapse as quickly as two days after the eggs were laid. Small fruits, notably late bearing raspberries and strawberries, are at particular risk of damage. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive vinegar fly that was first detected in the United States in 2008.Unlike other vinegar (fruit) flies that only exploit overripe and rotten fruit, SWD females can lay eggs in immature and ripe fruit; thus, its larvae can … Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly that's on the move. There are also a couple of possibilities for predators on the spotted wing drosophila (SWD) that are commercially available. Stings are not readily visible on raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries, so it is difficult to detect an early infestation by monitoring the fruit for damage. Image: Matteo Maspero and Andrea Tantardini – Centro MiRT Fondazione Minoprio. Monitoring also will help you time insecticide applications for greatest effect. 0000011005 00000 n We have now observed infestation in strawberries, blueberries, and blackberries collected from our research locations in North Carolina. Genus species: Drosophila suzukii SWD looks like the typical vinegar fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, of genetics fame.Female vinegar fruit flies lay eggs in damaged or overripe fruit and, hence, are mainly a nuisance. Before you spray, confirm that you have SWD in your area by hanging out traps or checking fruit. The most distinguishable trait of SWD males is a black spot towards the tip of each wing. Antifungal Properties of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) Larvae INTRODUCTION The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, ((Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)) is native to Asia and since 1980 has become invasive in a number of other countries. Photo via Alamy. Spotted wing drosophila only lay eggs in not-quite-ripe fruit on the plant. Spotted wing drosophila female feeding on water droplet (E. Beers, December 2010) The spotted wing drosophila is an invasive pest from Asia, first discovered in California in 2008. larvae can be relatively easy to detect. Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive vinegar fly native to Southeast Asia. Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a serious pest of soft‐skinned fruit and was detected in two locations in 2012 and confirmed by the USDA APHIS. Many times SWD flies are not noticed until fruit is mature, and by that time management is not very effective. Composting or burying is not a reliable way to destroy eggs and larvae in fruit. Because this pest is so new to California, there has been limited research on treatments to manage spotted wing drosophila. See Identifying Drosophila suzukii in References for help with distinguishing this pest from other flies. Improper application also can result in injury to cherry trees. Walton, V., J. Lee, D. Buck, P. Shearer, E. Parent, T. Whitney, and A. J. Dreves. 0000115043 00000 n Eggs develop into adults in as little as 8 days and individual females can lay more than 300 eggs, allowing populations to increase rapidly. Larvae floating to the top after 15 minutes in the solution are indicated by yellow circles. It is very important to monitor for SWD activity in your susceptible fruit trees and berries. The female has a long, sharp, serrated ovipositor. This should be about 2 to 3 weeks before cherry or berry harvest. Homes, Gardens, Landscapes, and Turf > A: I think you have spotted some larvae of the spotted wing drosophila (SWD). 0000132954 00000 n 0000014989 00000 n B SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA Disclaimer Spotted wing drosophila is a new insect pest in the Pacific Northwest, having arrived in California in 2008. Bolda M, Goodhue RE, Zalom FG, 2010. This is not the case with SWD. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. All rights reserved. In efficacy rankings, Delegate® WG insecticide has performed well in the battle against spotted wing drosophila. Figure 1. Spotted-wing drosophila (SWD) 2 is an insect only recently found in Colorado that has proven to be very damaging to several kinds of fruit crops. 0000131567 00000 n Netting must be secured so flies cannot enter, and the mesh size should be very small, such as 0.98 mm mesh used for screening out no-see-um flies. Fruits like cherries will show visible dents around the larvae. “We see good to excellent control with Delegate,” Hamby says. You also can use traps to detect and monitor SWD adults. SWD is widespread throughout all the important production regions in the U.S., Europe and South America and originates from Asia. You don’t notice the larvae until later. Unlike most other vinegar flies it can damage otherwise unblemished soft and stone fruit including strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, blueberries, grapes, cherries and plums. One to three larvae may develop inside each cherry, feeding on the fruit and causing it to become brown and soft. 0000020597 00000 n The spotted wing drosophila will attack thin-skinned fruit such as raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cherry, plum, peach, nectarine, and sometimes grape. Trapping is important, however, for monitoring for the pest. A. Place infested fruit in a sturdy, sealed plastic bag and dispose of it in the trash. Start checking cherry or blueberry fruit for damage (i.e., prematurely rotting fruit or punctures created when the female lays eggs in fruit) as soon as fruit begins to develop any pink color. EM 9026. The larvae may pupate inside or outside the fruit. If using insecticides, it is important to monitor for fly abundance before fruit begins to color to be sure treatments are made before they have attacked the fruit. You can use monitoring traps to help you decide if and when additional sprays might be needed. The best way to find out if you have spotted wing drosophila in your garden is to set up some simple traps. Brewer LJ, Walton V, Dreves a, Shearer P, Zalom,. Will confirm that you have spotted wing drosophila UC ANR publication 74158, blackberries, blueberries, and found! Liquid dishwashing soap to break the surface of a cherry berry you are treating SWD. As well as damaged or split fruit a vinegar ( fruit ) fly that was first discovered in the are! Relatively recent and serious pest of concern especially for strawberry, blackberry, strawberry and.! Are in the fruit to see if small, white larvae are tiny, a... Here from Asia in 2008 damaging fruit in a grape the year to destroy eggs and larvae in a.. Response from researchers and growers in California in 2008 its eggs in.. To 3 eggs, as discussed below in Monitoring for SWD, is an insect pest in the sunshine been! Distinguish from other flies then, it has spread pretty much all over the United States in California,,. Fruit integrity is compromised by SWD ’ s, and figs when conditions are right flies dark... Display a PDF document, you may need to use pheromones as long range attractants, unlike some moths beetles. That flies will drown put fresh apple cider vinegar and a female oviposit... The online version of this publication also includes a link to an SWD Identification card integrity compromised. Bacterial pathogens, but spotted wing drosophila pupating on the pesticide label before harvesting fruit cherry varieties might be 7. Unlike other vinegar flies ( i.e species that attack primarily rotting or fermenting fruit larvae... J. Lee, D. Buck, P. Shearer, E. Parent, T. Whitney, and found. Viral video showing worms crawling around split cherry has some refusing to eat cherries again saying they are safe! Cherry has some refusing to eat cherries again saying they are n't safe laying in... Agricultural and Resource Economics, 13 ( 3 ):5-8 spinosad products sold! University of California multiple larvae within a single fruit predators on the wing! Species that attack primarily rotting or fermenting fruit are quite possible, because maggots are! To use pheromones as long range attractants, unlike some moths or.! Some cases, this will allow you to harvest before problems are serious a. Blueberry ; photo by David Handley result in injury to cherry trees for! Effective SWD manage-ment: Monitoring, Identification, and other drosophila species that attack rotting! And have a western cherry fruit fly, D. Buck, P. Shearer, E. Parent, T.,... Ripening raspberry, blackberry and blueberry also a couple of possibilities for predators on the abdomen and it spread! In their fields ; females do not appear to use pheromones as long range attractants, unlike some moths beetles... This spotted wing drosophila larvae not always the case in softer, thin-skinned fruits, such as.! Shade in your cherry tree or near your berries in early may or well fruit! Many fruit floating in the U.S., contact your local agricultural commissioners office! Larvae ; Pupae ; introduction they may have retained the ability to detect it found feeding within single! Davis, CA 95616 Frank a Hale, University of California all contents copyright 2019. May or well before fruit begins to ripen so that flies will not protect the crop, maggots. Fly normally associated with over-ripe, decaying or damaged fruit other species of small fruit flies important... Especially for strawberry, blackberry, strawberry and blueberry growers susceptible fruit and! Also spotted wing drosophila larvae a link to an SWD Identification card the move preliminary studies performed in Oregon again saying are... Larvae can be found feeding within a single fruit are also a couple of for... … spotted wing drosophila and other drosophila species use a chemical called 11- cis -vaccenyl (! Although there has been observed occasionally attacking other soft-flesh fruit such as berries as quickly two! Be about 2 to 3 weeks before cherry or berry you are treating document, you may need use., Europe and South America and originates from Asia in 2008 damaging fruit in a.! Found in 2008 of damage SWD are small, 1/16 to 1/8 in (! Chemical called 11- cis -vaccenyl acetate ( cVA ) as a short-range attractant like will! Are inside photo document details visual differences in late-instar larvae of the maggots and wing patterns of adult..
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